THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC, ORGANO-MINERAL, COMPLEX AND LEAF FERTILIZATIONS ON MAIZE IN THE TRANSYLVANIA REGION
The paper highlights the implementation of a soil fertilization system with ecological protection for maize crops in Transylvania in a climate favorable to maize cultivation in an area with high quality soils in terms of fertility and favorable for most cultivated agricultural and horticultural plants, maize being cultivated in this region on a considerable area. Along with the maize harvest, the export of mineral elements from the soil is very high, which determines the rapid impoverishment of the soil, being necessary a proper fertilization of the maize crop, in order to achieve quantitative and qualitative production of corn grains.
The specific nutrient consumption of corn, according to different authors, varies between: 20-30 kg N; 8-14 kg P2O5; 20-30 kg K2O; 10-14 kg CaO and 3.5-4.5 kg MgO, to achieve a ton of corn grains, needing large amounts of nutrients, throughout the growing season, to achieve the expected production. In this context, the paper aims to review Cojocna area, located in Cluj County, in the Transylvanian Plain, an area that nature has endowed with invaluable gifts, which lends itself to sustainable and profitable conservative agriculture. Soils, mostly of the faeoziom type, specific to this region, exhibit a high humus content, are well structured and aerated, which in terms of fertility are considered very productive. As a result of recent climate change and the specificity of the cambic faeoziom soils, which in the B cambic (Bv) horizon formed by altering the basic parent material "in situ", presenting in the upper part, dark brown colors followed by yellowish brown colors due to the accumulation of clay, which in conditions of heavy and long rains, favors the accumulation and puddle of water on the soil surface, which leads to asphyxiation and death of young plants, with undesirable consequences on the maize crop in the area. In this sense, it is known that corn is a plant species that resists well to unfavorable climatic conditions and also, has beneficial effects on all soils by improving aeration and soil structuring conditions, due to the well developed root system. The purpose of this paper is dedicated to the development of organic, organo-mineral, complex mineral and foliar fertilizations of maize crops in an area with high favorability for maize from Transylvania.
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